By Sascha W. Felix
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Additional resources for Advances in shrimp aquaculture management
Therefore to formulate a balanced feed, its essential to have a closer look at the effect of ingredient quality or the toxicity of special additives. Ingredient Selection and Quality Criteria for Feed Formulation A study with turbot (Obach and Laurencin, 1992) for example, showed that the presence of oxidized lipid (peroxide value: 3000 meq/kg) significantly lowered the chemoluminescent response of head kidney phagocytes and increased mortality rates of the fish when challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.
8 mg/l. 3 and in ponds with a good growth of phytoplankton, pH values of 9 and above are common in the late afternoon. Most of the ammonia in a pond is formed due to the waste accumulation of the organisms originated or living in the pond. The higher the density of both the species being cultured and the organisms cultured for food, the greater the production of ammonia. Ammonia will eventually be converted to nitrate, but there is a danger that ammonia production will exceed the capacity of the pond to convert the ammonia rapidly enough to prevent it from exceeding toxic levels.
When the pigment chromatophores expand, a prominent bluish or reddish-brown streak appears on the ventral side of the body in P. monodon postlarvae. In P. semisulcatus, the chromatophores are prominent only on the sixth (last) segment. P. monodon is larger than P. semisulcatus and has a distinctive habit of swimming with its head lower than its tail and the body is kept at about 45o. The post-larvae of P. monodon and P. semisulcatus can be separated by the following characteristics. Table 6: Characteristic Differences Between P.
Advances in shrimp aquaculture management by Sascha W. Felix