By Mary N. Arai (auth.)
Scyphozoa have attracted the eye of many sorts of individuals. Naturalists watch their sleek locomotion. Fishermen may possibly dread the swarms which could hinder fishing or consume larval fish. Bathers retreat from the water in the event that they are stung. humans from a few Asiatic nations devour the medusae. Comparative physiologists learn them as very likely uncomplicated versions for the functioning of varied platforms. This booklet integrates information from these and different investigations right into a useful biology of scyphozoa. it's going to emphasize the big variety of adaptive responses attainable in those morphologically quite easy animals. The ebook will be aware of the examine of the final 35 years, partially simply because there was a fast growth of data in the course of that interval, and partially simply because a lot of the former paintings used to be summarized via books released among 1961 and 1970. Bibliographies of papers on scyphozoa have been incorporated in Mayer (1910) and Kramp (1961). Taxonomic diagnoses also are integrated in these monographs, in addition to in a monograph at the scyphomedusae of the USSR released through Naumov (Naumov, 1961). such a lot impor tantly, a genenttion of scyphozoan staff has used as its 'bible' the monograph through F.S.Russell (1970) The Medusae of the British Isles. regardless of its restrictive name, his booklet experiences lots of the details at the biology of scyphozoa as much as that date.
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Extra info for A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa
The lithocytes secrete intracellular or extracellular crystalline or amorphous mineral deposits known as statoliths. e. , 1985). Gypsum is rare in biological systems, neverthless even in low sulphate sea water A. aurita does not utilize phosphate to form the more common calcium phosphate (Spangenberg, 1981). Rhopalia and the associated statocysts of A. aurita are first formed during strobilation (Spangenberg, 1968b, 1991). Metamorphosis can be induced by thyroxine, so that statolith synthesis in the lithocytes can be studied at will in culture (Spangenberg, 1967).
In muscle of higher animals myosin in the thick filaments interacts with actin in the thin filaments. e. myosin is clearly present in other coelenterates. However, actin has not yet been clearly demonstrated. , 1991). The pattern of banding in the extra-thick fibres suggests the presence of paramyosin (Perkins, Ramsey and Street, 1971; Kawaguti and Yoshimoto, 1973) but the protein has not yet been extracted. Desmosomes observed connecting the ends of pairs of myoepithelial cells may transmit tension from the end of one cell to the next (Burnett and Sutton, 1969; Blanquet and Riordan, 1981; Anderson and Schwab, 1981).
It is not known whether the facilitation is due to further recruitment of muscle fibres or to increased contraction of the originally stimulated fibres. 4) also has input to the swimming muscles which varies from species to species. , 1956a). , 1965). , 1956a). The neuromuscular delay (the time between passage of the impulse in the MNN and the contraction of the muscle) is very long. The 28 Locomotion delay also differs between different muscles, which allows sequential contraction of muscles in response to each impulse passing through the MNN.
A Functional Biology of Scyphozoa by Mary N. Arai (auth.)